THEORIES DE LA PERSONNALITE

THEORIES DE LA PERSONNALITE

Big Five

  • Le « BIG FIVE » est une théorie américaine qui fait ressortir 5 grands facteurs de la personnalité dont les principaux fondateurs sont Costa & MacCrae. Voici les 5 caractères fondamentaux évaluées par le Big Five :
  • Extraversion (esprit bouillant, actif) / réserve
  • Caractère agréable (personne sympathique, gentillesse) / froideur
  • Conscience (organisation, minutie) / insouciance
  • Stabilité émotionnelle (calme, contrôle) / névrosisme
  • Ouverture d’esprit (personne imaginative, originale) / caractère banal

THEORIES DE LA PERSONNALITE

  • Elles reposent littéralement sur un fondement psychanalytique. La personne dans sa nature humaine est dotée d’un comportement le plus souvent indéfinissable. On parle alors de béhaviorisme. De ce fait, une étude de la personnalité est indispensable. La valeur humaine dépend en majeure partie de son état conscient mais aussi de l’inconscient.
  • Les principaux auteurs afférents à la personnalité sont : Freud, Marx, Jung, Watson, Maslow, Rogers…

Tous ont leur mot à dire sur cette entité. Mais il est à noter que toutes les études établies se convergent en un seul point. Seule la façon d’expliquer est différenciée. Quand on parle de personnalité, on parlera de psychologie dans plusieurs domaines (gestalt, humaniste, cognitive).
Ce qui concerne la psychanalyse, le caractère, les motivations, les comportements … de la personne ne sont pas non plus à exclure !
Tous ces facteurs démontrent à quel point une étude de la personnalité est indispensable. Cette étude permettra de mieux connaître la personne ! Et surtout de mieux la comprendre !
Il faut admettre que tout individu ne connaît pas lui-même ce qu’il est exactement ! Cependant, grâce à une étude particulière, il saura qui il est ? Comment il est ? Qu’est-ce qu’il aime ? Qu’est-ce qu’il déteste ? Que veut-il ? …
Des études approfondies ont été menées par des chercheurs internationaux pour répondre à toutes ces questions ! Ainsi, on retrouve actuellement plusieurs tests liés à la personnalité !

CLASSIFICATION DES THEORIES

Plusieurs théories sont liées à la personnalité. Bon nombre d’écrivains partagent leur façon de voir et donnent chacun leur définition.

SR Maddi (1976)

Selon lui, les théories de la personnalité formulent 3 groupes d’énoncés théoriques :

  • définition de la nature humaine
  • caractéristiques périphériques de la personnalité
  • articulation développementale
Friedrich (1972)

Il propose à son tour, à partir de Looft (1972) une autre classification qui tire son origine de la psychologie du développement (changement individu, nature organisme, nature différences)

Hjelle et Ziegler (1976)

Ils présentent une approche plus philosophique de la nature humaine et énumèrent huit sortes de postulats que peut poser un théoricien de la personnalité:

  • Liberté ou déterminisme
  • Raison ou irrationalisme
  • Holisme ou élémentarisme
  • Constitutionnalisme ou environnementalisme
  • Subjectivité ou objectivité
  • Proactivité ou réactivité
  • Homéostasie ou hétérostase
  • Intelligibilité ou mystère
  • Ils auraient pu ajouter un neuvième type de postulats: Perfection et bonté ou imperfection et mal
R.I. Watson (1967)

Un spécialiste de l'histoire de la psychologie, a proposé de différencier les diverses conceptions de la psychologie en fonction de 18 dimensions bipolaires. Certaines de ces dimensions portent sur l'objet de la psychologie, sur la nature humaine, sur les moyens de connaître cet objet de la psychologie ou sur la méthodologie à employer en psychologie.

Enfin, il faut mentionner une dimension importante que les divers systèmes de classification mentionnent parfois brièvement. Il s'agit de la dimension épistémologique. è Quel type de connaissances avons-nous, pouvons-nous ou devons-nous avoir en psychologie? Est-ce que la psychologie est une science? Et, si oui, est-ce une science qui diffère fondamentalement, par son objet ou ses méthodes, des sciences de la nature? Y a-t-il un type de connaissance purement, exclusivement psychologique?

Découvrez votre vrai personnalité avec notre Test de Personnalité !

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