Qu'est-ce que le quotient émotionnel?

Qu'est-ce que le quotient émotionnel ?

Le quotient émotionnel est une estimation de l'intelligence émotionnelle, c’est-à dire la capacité à contrôler ses émotions, à percevoir celles des autres et à utiliser ces informations pour se motiver, planifier et accomplir sa vie. Des recherches ont montré que les individus qui ont un haut niveau d'intelligence émotionnelle sont plus heureux, profitent plus de la vie et ont plus de succès sur le plan personnel et professionnel.


Fondements psychologiques

De nombreux travaux en neurologie et en psychologie ont montré la différence existant entre la pensée cognitive (l’intellect) et l’intelligence émotionnelle (l’affect). Ils ont montré que le cerveau rationnel n’est pas localisé au même endroit que le cerveau émotionnel. Alors que le cerveau rationnel (situé dans le néocortex et localisé dans les lobes frontaux) contient notre capacité de réflexion et de perception, le cerveau émotionnel (situé dans les zones subcorticales et localisé dans l'amygdale et les circuits neuronaux associés) contrôle nos émotions (peur, colère, tristesse, joie, etc.). En général, les lobes frontaux, siège du cerveau rationnel, contrôlent les impulsions de l'amygdale, qui répond à des sensations ou à des pulsions et non à la raison. Mais en état d'urgence (danger, colère, angoisse, etc.), le cerveau émotionnel inhibe le cerveau rationnel et reprend le dessus.Les personnes dotées d’une grande intelligence émotionnelle présentent des habiletés dans les quatre domaines suivants: l’identification, l’utilisation, la compréhension et l’ajustement des émotions. De fait, l’équilibre de ces tendances contraires, non seulement régule leurs comportements mais détermine aussi la qualité de leurs pensées et de leurs décisions.

Fondements historiques

Les premiers à formuler une théorie de l'intelligence émotionnelle sont deux universitaires américains, Peter Salovey et John Mayer, qui définissent le concept en 1990 comme étant «l'habileté à percevoir et à exprimer les émotions, à les intégrer pour faciliter la pensée, à comprendre et à raisonner avec les émotions, ainsi qu'à réguler les émotions chez soi et chez les autres». Cette notion va gagner en popularité avec Daniel Goleman et dépasser le Quotient Intellectuel (QI) comme moyen de mesure de l’intelligence. Goleman, psychologue et écrivain américain, affirme que les vertus de l’intelligence émotionnelle s’appliquent aussi bien sur le plan relationnel que sur celui de la réussite professionnelle.Les recherches de Goleman prouvent aussi que deux des trois compétences les plus déterminantes dans la réussite professionnelle sont la confiance, la faculté d'adaptation et le talent pour la coopération.L’idée que l’intelligence émotionnelle peut être développée et entraînée contribue également à sa popularité. Le psychologue américain Reuven Bar-On a mis au point l’une des premières mesures de l’intelligence émotionnelle en utilisant l’expression « quotient émotionnel », le «Bar-On EQ-i». Le QE est alors calculé sur cinq échelles:intrapersonnel, interpersonnel, adaptabilité, gestion du stress et humeur générale. Il pose l’hypothèse que les personnes disposant d’un QE supérieur à la moyenne réussissent en général mieux à faire face aux exigences et aux pressions de l’environnement.Au contraire du QI, le QE se travaille et se développe: il est possible d’améliorer son niveau d’intelligence émotionnelle par la formation et par la thérapie.


Comment mesurer le quotient émotionnel ?

Les compétences émotionnelles peuvent être identifiées et mesurées par le biais de tests de Quotient Émotionnel. Ces tests sont de plus en plus utilisés par les entreprises, soit en recrutement (pour évaluer la faculté de concentration du candidat, le contrôle de ses sentiments, de ses émotions et sa capacité à gérer les relations avec autrui), soit en évaluation interne (pour sensibiliser les employés, les managers et les aider à progresser).Vous souhaitez évaluer vos capacités émotionnelles?


Le Test d’Intelligence émotionnelle, vous permettra de mieux vous connaître afin de mieux gérer vos émotions, développer votre confiance en vous et réussir dans la vie.

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