Qu’est-ce que la pyramide de Maslow ?

Qu’est-ce que la pyramide de Maslow ?

La pyramide de Maslow est une classification hiérarchique des besoins humains. Cette théorie a été élaborée à partir des observations faites dans les années 1940 par le psychologue américain Abraham Maslow sur la motivation humaine.Les travaux de Maslow permettent de classer les besoins humains par ordre d'importance en cinq niveaux. Ce classement correspond à l'ordre dans lequel ils apparaissent à l'individu. La satisfaction des besoins d'un niveau entraînant les besoins du niveau suivant. On ne peut atteindre le sommet de la pyramide, que si l’on arrive à satisfaire tous les besoins précédents.

Les besoins humains selon Maslow

Les besoins physiologiques sont directement liés à la survie des individus ou de l’espèce. Ce sont typiquement des besoins fondamentaux : manger, boire, dormir, etc.

Le besoin de sécurité consiste à se protéger contre les différents dangers qui nous menacent. Il s’agit donc d’un besoin de conservation d’un acquis.Ce besoin est rattaché à des notions comme : la protection physique et psychologique, l'emploi, la stabilité familiale et professionnelle.

Le besoin d’appartenance révèle la dimension sociale de l’individu qui a besoin de se sentir accepté par les groupes dans lesquels il vit (famille, travail, association, ...)Ce besoin est rattaché à des notions comme : être accepté tel que l'on est, avoir des amis et un réseau social satisfaisant, être reconnu.

Le besoin d’estime prolonge le besoin d’appartenance. C’est le besoin de se sentir utile et donc d’avoir de la valeur. Pour évoluer chaque individu doit avoir de l’estime pour lui-même mais aussi sentir que les autres ont de la considération pour lui. Ce besoin est rattaché à des notions comme : le désir de force, la réussite ou le mérite, la maîtrise de certaines compétences, la confiance en soi face aux autres et le désir de liberté.

Le besoin de s’accomplir est selon Maslow le sommet des aspirations humaines. Il vise à sortir d’une condition purement matérielle pour atteindre l’épanouissement, la réalisation de soi.Pour atteindre le sommet de la pyramide de Maslow et atteindre cette réalisation de soi, il faut que l’individu ait été capable de résoudre ses problèmes et d’aider les autres, d’accepter les conseils qui lui sont donnés, d’avoir de l’intérêt pour le travail et les questions sociales, de savoir communiquer et écouter, de contrôler son stress et d’aider les autres à le faire, de s’aimer, d’être à la recherche de nouvelles expériences et connaissances, de prévoir les problèmes et les réussites, et de s’accepter tel qu’il est.
Cette étape de la pyramide n’est jamais atteinte réellement et réclame une recherche perpétuelle.

Le saviez-vous?

Epicure aussi avait élaboré une classification des besoins : les besoins naturels à la vie (manger, respirer, etc.) , au bien être (maison, hygiène, diététique, etc.) et au bonheur (amitié, philosophie, etc.), les aspirations naturelles dont on peut se passer (sexe, amour, jeux, art, etc.), les aspirations de créations humaines et donc artificielles (la gloire, la richesse, etc.), et enfin les aspirations mystiques et non réalisable (l’immortalité, etc.). La théorie des besoins de Maslow est appliquée à de nombreux domaines : psychologie, management, marketing direct et tout récemment le web 2.0. Vous souhaitez savoir quelles sont vos motivations professionnelles ? Découvrez vos valeurs fondamentales au travail avec le Test de Motivation.

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