La programmation neuro-linguistique (PNL)

La programmation neuro-linguistique (PNL)

Inventé en 1970 aux Etats-Unis par John Grinder et Richard Bandler, la programmation neuro-linguistique (PNL) est un ensemble de techniques de développement personnel s’inspirant de la psychothérapie.

Cet ensemble de modèles et de techniques est destiné à améliorer la communication entre individus et à aider à se progresser personnellement. La PNL peut être employée dans des cadres personnels ou professionnels.

Née de l’observation des comportements et en se basant sur des théories psychologiques, la PNL a aujourd’hui l’opportunité de s’enrichir en s’ouvrant aux apports des neurosciences.

Origines du terme PNL 

  • Programmation : Le mot « programme » fait référence à l’ensemble de nos automatismes (automatismes cognitifs, émotionnels ou comportementaux)
  • Neuro : Le terme « neuro » fait référence aux neurones et à notre système nerveux central et périphérique qui sont aux commandes.
  • Linguistique : Le langage est un code qui nous permet de communiquer, de structurer notre pensée et de véhiculer notre culture.

Quel est le rôle de la PNL ?

La PNL fait partie des techniques comportementales des sciences humaines par opposition aux sciences dites exactes. C’est la synthèse d’un travail d’observation et de compréhension des faits humains à travers leurs manifestations orales et gestuelles. Elle se fixe comme ambition de « mieux communiquer » avec autrui ou encore de tendre vers « l’excellence en matière de communication ».

La PNL a pour principal rôle d’observer  des compétences, les approprier, les décoder et les expérimenter pour créer des modèles efficients. Ces modèles constituent ensuite une base aidant à une démarche de progression épanouissante.

Les modèles visent à faciliter :

  • une connaissance de soi ;
  • un accès aux ressources présentes et déjà acquises par la personne ;
  • la création de nouvelles ressources ;
  • la transposition d’une ressource d’un contexte (personnel par exemple) à un autre (professionnel par exemple).

La démarche de la PNL consiste à partir d’un « état présent » et d’aller vers un « état désiré » en utilisant les « ressources » passées, présentes et à venir (imagination) de la personne ainsi qu’en utilisant des techniques héritées des thérapeutes américains (notamment Milton Erickson).

La PNL fait partie des nouvelles approches de la psychologie du quotidien. Bien que très controversée, elle est utilisée aussi bien pour le développement personnel que pour la dynamique de groupe en entreprise ou pour le traitement des affections mentales. Elle se trouve ainsi au même niveau d’aspirations qu’un très grand nombre d’autres méthodes nées à la fin du XXe siècle. Elle se détache cependant de ces dernières par son succès, sa simplicité et les promesses faites. Certains pensent que cette technique souffre d’une inadéquation entre ses aspirations et l’inexistence de preuves scientifiques de son efficacité. Pour d’autres, la simplicité de la méthode peut nuire aux patients.

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