La personnalité et ses mystères

La personnalité et ses mystères

L'idée générale qui ressort des différentes visions de la personnalité est l'ensemble des comportements qui constituent l'individualité d'une personne. Elle rend compte de ce qui qualifie l'individu de la permanence ainsi que de la continuité des modes d'action et de réaction ; à l’originalité et la spécificité de sa manière d'être.  

La connaissance de la personnalité et du profil de psychologie est un enjeu important. Elle permet de prévoir avec une marge d'erreur limitée le comportement de la personne dans des situations ordinaires, par exemple professionnelles. 

La connaissance de la personnalité est aussi l'objectif de la connaissance de soi.

Le simple fait de s’interroger sur ce qui est bon pour vous commence à vous rendre meilleur.

Les techniques modernes d'évaluation personnelle en ligne permettent maintenant des analyses plus globales qu'autrefois.

Distinction entre tempérament, caractère et personnalité 

La notion de personnalité est parfois mise en rapport avec celle de caractère. 

La personnalité peut se définir comme étant les manières, "les façons d'agir" et les attitudes qui sont propres à un individu et qui permettent de le distinguer des autres. 

Longtemps synonyme de personnalité, le terme « caractère » n'est plus guère utilisé en psychologie. Il est associé à des connotations morales, et fait référence à un jugement de valeur souvent négatif (mauvais caractère, caractère de cochon). 

Le tempérament fait référence aux correspondances physiologiques du caractère lié à la tradition morpho psychologique antique (théorie des humeurs) ou constitutionnelle moderne.

L'approche de la personnalité selon les grands courants 

Il existe au moins deux approches différentes de la personnalité : 

La notion de personnalité dans la psychologie analytique 

La psychologie analytique de Carl-Gustav Jung décrit la personnalité suivant trois axes de caractéristiques :

  • introversion / extraversion,
  • intuitif / factuel,
  • intellectuel / affectif.

Les préférences d'une personne pour un des deux pôles sur ces trois axes, fondent le type psychologique. Des questionnaires peuvent ainsi contribuer à la détermination de ce type (PROFILSCAN, MBTI, GOLDEN, ...).

La notion de personnalité dans la psychologie sociale 

Dans les théories de psychologie sociale (Osgood par exemple), un trait de personnalité est un adjectif qui décrit un comportement, des états affectifs, mais aussi des formulations sur la valeur des individus.
Pour chaque trait, des outils psychométriques peuvent être élaborés. Ces derniers permettent de situer un individu par rapport au reste de la population de référence. La plupart des tests de personnalité utilisés se fondent sur la théorie du trait.

- Ainsi dans la théorie dite des 2D (Osgood, 1962), les traits de personnalité sont répartis en deux groupes :

  • les traits appartenant à la notion de la sociabilité (exemple: sympathique, malhonnête…),
  • les traits appartenant à la notion d'évaluation des compétences (exemple: compétent, dynamique…).

- Dans la théorie dite des 5D (ou Big Five, Mc Crae et Costa, 1997), les traits de personnalités sont regroupés en cinq groupes :

  • Introversion / extraversion,
  • Amical / hostile,
  • Consciencieuse,
  • Stable / instable,
  • Compétence.

Ces catégories proviennent des fortes corrélations qui sont observées entre les différents traits de différents tests.

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