Apprendre à mieux communiquer (Les types de communications)

Apprendre à mieux communiquer (Les types de communications)

La communication est le moyen par lequel on met en commun information et connaissance. Il peut s'agir de partager des sentiments et des émotions, des renseignements, des pensées ou des opinions. En fait, tout ce qui émane de soi, consciemment ou non, devient une activité de communication. Pour bien faire passer le message, il est utile de comprendre les mécanismes de la communication et ainsi de mieux diriger ses actions et ses paroles selon le moment et le contexte.Pourquoi communique-t-on?

  • pour faire passer une information, une connaissance, une émotion, etc.
  • pour établir une base ou un code commun qui servira à une meilleure compréhension mutuelle,
  • pour influencer et amener autrui à agir selon sa volonté,
  • pour se présenter à l'autre afin qu'il sache qui l'on est.

Les types de communication

  • La communication interpersonnelle se base sur un échange entre plusieurs personnes. C'est habituellement la forme de communication la plus efficace, surtout lorsque les interlocuteurs sont en présence l'un de l'autre. Ainsi l'échange peut inclure des composantes verbales et non verbales et la rétroaction (feedback) est souvent systématique.
  • La communication de masse implique qu'un individu (ou un ensemble d'individus partageant les mêmes intérêts) s'adressent à tout ceux qui sont en mesure de capter leur message. Les principaux moyens de communication de masse sont la télévision, la radio, la presse, l’affichage, le cinéma ou encore Internet. Jusqu'à l'apparition d'Internet, la rétroaction (feedback) était pratiquement impossible ou fort ardue.
  • La communication de groupe se situe entre les deux types précédents. Elle met en scène un individu ou un groupe d'individus qui s'adressent à une catégorie de personnes définie, en prenant en compte leur culture propre. On peut par exemple y inclure la communication d'une entreprise envers certains groupes externes ciblés.

Le contexte

  • Une communication s'inscrit dans un certain environnement, composé d'une multitude d'éléments qui ne font pas partie du message mais qui peuvent influencer sa perception chez l'autre. Par exemple :
  • La culture : Le code culturel s'avère sans doute parmi les éléments les plus signifiants du contexte. Il importe de vérifier si les codes culturels correspondent et de s'ajuster en conséquence pour établir une bonne communication.
  • Le moment : Le moment que vous choisissez pour livrer un message peut s'avérer déterminant. Par exemple, vous serez peut-être mal reçu si vous sollicitez votre chef de service pour des congés en pleine période de rush.
  • Le lieu : Si vous devez discuter d'un nouveau projet, le ferez-vous de la même manière si vous participez à une partie de golf entre partenaires d'affaires que si vous convoquez une réunion formelle avec ces mêmes partenaires ?
  • La situation : Vous vous y prendrez différemment selon que votre communication s'inscrit dans une situation de crise, une conférence publique ou qu'il s'agisse de l'annonce d'un événement heureux ou malheureux, etc.

Le feedback

C'est le retour sur le message envoyé. Il sert à confirmer ou infirmer la réception du message, demander des précisions, relancer ou clore la discussion. S'il n'y a pas de rétroaction, la communication ne peut aller plus loin.

Communication non verbale

Une grande portion de ce que l'on communique s'exprime autrement que par des mots. La gestuelle, les mimiques, le regard, la posture et le ton sont autant d'information que l'on transmet et que l'on perçoit. Le non verbal peut faciliter la communication. Par exemple lorsque l'on montre du bras la direction à prendre en même temps qu'on la nomme ou lorsque l'on hoche la tête pour indiquer que l'on a bien compris. Le non verbal porte à interprétation.

Ainsi un sourire pincé ou sarcastique, un regard fuyant, un tapotement du pied donnent des indications complémentaires, parfois même contraires aux paroles prononcées.

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